101个公园——江阴西城运河公园|包,101 Parks – Jiangyin Xicheng Canal Parks | BAU

一运河、两景观、多层

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矛盾的需求公园在当代城市正面临着一系列看似矛盾的需求。

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他们需要提供:平衡和逃离城市的文化活动;人们必不可少的文化设施聚集在一起休息和娱乐;为本地动植物建立一个健康的生态系统;以及为农村食品生产提供空间。

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不幸的是,正统的、通常风景如画的、大多是与世隔绝的城市公园正在努力调和这些看似矛盾的需求。

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一条长江运河江阴的河道瞬间变窄至1公里,从而可以修建一座吊桥。这座桥是江阴市第一座从上海上游过江的大桥,使江阴市得以快速发展。西城运河是一条连接长江的古运河,是华中水运网络的重要组成部分。它构成了江阴市规划的公园网络的一部分。该市长达23公里的绿道自行车道穿过运河景观。

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两个公园将对自然公园和文化公园的相互冲突的需求视为提供两个公园的机会,一个位于河流的任一侧,一个位于西岸,一个连续的生态本土景观;另一个位于东岸,一片绵延不绝的人文景观。

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生态公园本土生态系统廊道的开发在当代中国景观和城市建设中,尤其是大城市之外的地区,还远没有普遍的实践。尽管如此,客户已同意在西岸生态公园推行这一概念。

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河岸带独特的生态功能与跨多个时空尺度的动态生物物理过程和相互作用相联系。维持这些相互作用,以及推动它们的连通性,是维持健康河岸带及其提供的许多功能的基本要求。有效的维持需要在流动的时间和范围,以及动物的运动和类型上的连通性。

来自陆地植被(例如植物凋落物和昆虫粪便)的营养物质被转移到水生食物网中。植被还向河流提供木屑,这对维持地貌很重要。河岸带植被的种类不同于湿地,通常由水生植物或草本植物、树木组成,和灌木,在水的附近生长。“KDSPE”“KDSIMG12”“KDSPs”战略,以促进生态公园的概念包括:运河沿线现有的四公里的防洪墙将被替换为软席席以开发水生生态系统,并使动物获得永久性的供水;在必要的地面路径下的高架木板路和隧道进一步促进了动物群的活动;10个昆虫“旅馆”位于4公里长的生态土著公园沿线,以刺激昆虫的生活。

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这些举措将鼓励健康的河岸生态系统,提供生物过滤器以提高水质;为水生和陆生动物提供食物和庇护所;使沿河系统的动物能够迁徙,避免孤立的群落;最后,为了恢复和发展鱼类种群,

连接到城市范围内外的其他生态土著走廊网络是更广泛的生态战略。

文化公园被视为一个复杂、丰富和有益的文化表面,河东包含了公园和花园包括过去和现在的程序,以及能够轻松适应未来变化的能力。

网站被划分为一个镶嵌的瓷砖,一种提供流通和访问许多大片开放空间的姿态。道路变成了一个连续的不规则生态系统文化园区内的逻辑网络,提供极好的渗透性。独立的瓷砖可以自由地既不同又可以在不影响任何其他瓷砖的情况下进行更改。

许多层BAU确定了本项目涉及的每个设计问题,并为每个问题开发了独立的理想、不妥协或乌托邦式解决方案。这些理想层被组合成一个丰富而复杂的组合。装配中的任何冲突都是在维护层的同时在本地解决的。

确定了许多其他城市问题,并为每个问题开发了一个层。这些问题包括:

的残余物这个文化公园使得被移除的部分变得可见,并利用这些碎片来获取优势。历史街区的阈值被重新定义,被拆除的墙壁部分重建为框架视图,或成为座椅和长凳,增加公园用户的舒适度。“KDSPE”“KDSPs”周边路径既有生态土著的,又有文化公园的,在现有车辆桥之间和下运行的外围路径;为两个公园提供高度可接近的边缘。

从每一个交叉街道的愿望线,一条路径直接通向河流。在较宽的公园区域,设置了捷径,行人可以沿对角线穿过公园,到达下一个交叉桥。此外,生态公园有一条贯穿席席的道路,一条穿越大自然的宁静路线。“KDSPE”“现有建筑”现有建筑物被回收并重新规划成为后工业景观的一部分——要么在新生态公园内的绿色岛屿上,或成为文化公园新的文化项目和活动的焦点。

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展馆两个公园的规划展馆分布公平、均匀。从2.5分钟间隔的超小型项目(野餐、麻将)展馆,到5分钟间隔的小型项目(儿童游乐场、信息亭),再到中型项目(乒乓球,咖啡厅)每隔10分钟。

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不妥协本项目提供了一个新的不妥协的景观,尽管本世纪的景观需求相互冲突。

设计师:BAU Brearley Architects+Urbanists

项目状态:邀请比赛,一等奖。第一阶段在建。

地点:中国江苏省江阴市

年份:2017-进行中的

客户:江阴市规划局

建筑面积:151.6公顷(含水体面积40.9公顷)

类型:公共景观

BAU项目组:主管:詹姆斯·布雷利、史蒂文·惠特福德,方群。风景园林:黄芳、郭列夏、顾卓成(杰基)、张译、潘琳璐(BRY)、石正婷、PoT、Y、Y、Y、Y、XY、Y、Y、Y、Y、Y、Y、Y、Y、Y、He余庆(So)、γ,席。吴小建(沙龙)建筑:姜汉、米莉·加姆林、胡文军、李珍、陈志勇、吴志英、王娟、林胜哲、徐胜航、姜玉佳、姜汉、张德军、布拉格昂格、王小琪、李晓、陈志勇、卢鹏宏。詹斯·埃伯哈特。3D团队:翁家标、牛颖英、吕新平、王晓丹、霍冠强、孙立宝、夏梦嘉、曹颖晨、陈欣。

图片来源:BAU

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one canal, two landscapes, many layers

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conflicting demands
Parklands in the contemporary city are facing a series of seemingly conflicting demands.

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They need to provide: balance to, and escape from, the cultural activity of the city; cultural amenities essential for people to come together for rest and recreation; a healthy ecological system for indigenous flora and fauna; and, space for rural food production.

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Unfortunately, the orthodox, often picturesque, and mostly isolated urban park struggles to reconcile these seemingly conflicting demands.

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one canal
The Yangtze River momentarily narrows to one kilometre at Jiangyin, allowing a suspension bridge to be built. The bridge is the first crossing of the river upstream from Shanghai and has enabled Jiangyin’s rapid growth. Xicheng Canal is an ancient canal linked to the Yangtze River and forming an integral part of central China’s water transport network. It forms one length of Jiangyin’s planned park network. The city’s 23 kilometre greenway cycling path passes through the canal landscape.

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two parks
BAU see the conflicting needs for both natural parkland and cultural parkland as an opportunity to provide two parks, one either side of the river – on the west bank, a continuous ecological-indigenous landscape; on the east bank, a continuous cultural landscape.

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eco-park
The development of indigenous eco-system corridors is far from common practice in contemporary Chinese landscape and city building, particularly outside of the major cities. Nevertheless the client has agreed to pursue this concept for the west bank eco-park.

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The unique ecological functions of riparian zones are linked to dynamic biophysical processes and interactions across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Maintaining these interactions, and the connectivity driving them is a fundamental requirement for maintaining healthy riparian zones and the many functions they provide. Effective maintenance requires connectivity, both in the timing and extent of flows, as well as in the movements and types of animals.

Nutrients from terrestrial vegetation (e.g. plant litter and insect droppings) are transferred to the aquatic food webs. The vegetation also contributes wood debris to streams, which is important to maintaining geomorphology. The assortment of riparian zone vegetation differs from those of wetlands and typically consists of plants that are either emergent aquatic plants, or herbs, trees, and shrubs that thrive in proximity to water.

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Strategies to facilitate this eco-park concept include: four kilometers of existing flood walls along the canal will be replaced with soft edges to develop the aquatic ecosystem and to give fauna access to a permanent water supply; raised boardwalks and tunnels beneath necessary on-ground paths further enable fauna movements; and 10 insect “hotels” located along the four kilometer eco indigenous park to stimulate insect life.

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These initiatives will encourage a healthy riparian eco-system, provide a bio filter to enhance water quality; provide food and shelter for aquatic and land animals; enable migration of fauna along the river system avoiding isolated communities; and finally to recover and develop fish populations.

Connections to a network of other eco-indigenous corridors within and beyond the city limits is the broader ecological strategy.

culture-park
Seen as a complex, rich and rewarding cultural surface, the east side of the river embraces the cultural aspects of parks and gardens including, past and present programs, and the ability to easily accommodate changes in the future.

The site is divided into a tessellated tiles, a gesture that provides both circulation and access to many large parcels of open space. The paths become a continuous irregular ecological network within the cultural park and provide excellent permeability. The independent tiles are free to be both different and to be able to change without compromising any of the others.

many layers
BAU identified each design issue involved in this project and developed an independent ideal, uncompromised or utopian solution for each of those issue. These ideal layers have been put together in a rich and complex assemblage. Any conflict within the assemblage was solved locally while maintaining the layer(s).

A number of other urban issues were identified and a layer developed for each. These issues include:

palimpsest
This cultural park makes visible parts of what has been removed and uses those fragments to advantage. Thresholds of historical precincts are redefined, walls lost to demolition are partially rebuilt to frame views, or become seats and benches, increasing amenity for the park users.

peripheral paths
Both the eco-indigenous and the cultural park have a peripheral path that runs between and under existing vehicular bridges, providing highly accessible edges to both parks.

desire lines
From every intersecting street, a path leads directly to the river. In the wider park areas, shortcuts are provided so pedestrians can cut diagonally through the park to the next intersecting bridge. In addition, the eco-park has a path running through the centre, a quiet route through nature.

existing buildings
Existing buildings are recycled and re-programmed to become part of a post-industrial landscape – either on green islands within the new eco-park, or becoming the focus of new cultural programs and activities in the cultural park.

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pavilions
Both parks have programmed pavilions distributed fairly and evenly throughout. From extra-small programs (picnic, mahjong) pavilions at 2.5 minute intervals; to small programs (children’s playground, kiosk) at 5 minute intervals; to medium programs (table tennis, cafe) at 10 minute intervals.

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uncompromised
This project provides a new uncompromised landscape despite the conflicting landscape demands of this new century.

Designer: BAU Brearley Architects + Urbanists

Project Status: Invited competition, 1st prize. Stage 1 under construction.  

Location: Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China

Year: 2017 – ongoing

Client: Jiangyin Planning Bureau

Construction Area: 151.6 ha( including waterbody area 40.9 ha)

Typology: Public landscape

BAU Project Team:
Directors: James Brearley, Steven Whitford, Fang Qun.
Landscape architecture: Huang Fang , Guo Liexia, Gu Zhuocheng(Jackie), Zhang Yi, Pan Linlu(Berry), Shi Zhengting, Zhang Xinwei, Pan Guo, Wang Chenlei, Luo Li ,  Xiong Juan, Alex,Tan Min,Ni Yang, Cheng Qi,Yuan Yao,Chen Yanling,Chen Xingyuan,He Yuqing (Mona),Lei Tao,Zhu Li. Wu Xiaojian(Sharon)
Architecture: Jiang Han, Milly Gamlin, Hu Wenjun, Li Zhen, Chen Zhiyong, Wu Zhiying, Wang Juan, Lin Shengzhe, Xu Shenghang, Jiang Yujia, Jiang Han, Zhang Dejun, Prague Unger, Wang Xiaoqi, Li Xiao, Chen Zhiyong, Lu Penghong. Jens Eberhardt.
3D team: Weng Jiabiao, Niu Yingying, Lv Xinping,Wang Xiaodan, Huo Guanqiang, Sun Libao, Xia Mengjia, Cao Yingchen, Chen Xin.

Image credits: BAU